Hilda Coyne, Editor
AND GOOD NEWS
to Visions on Learning Differences. After five years
as the Newsletter Editor for the Learning Disabilities Special
Professional Interest Network of the National Association for
Developmental Education, I am establishing a new online newsletter
for those interested in the identification and treatment of
learning differences, as well as related needs.
introductory issue presents updates on identifying and treating
learning differences, teaching tips and strategies, as well
as conference information, legislative issues, and more. Additionally,
not only are many of our friends and colleagues leading authorities
in our interdisciplinary field, they have agreed to present
original materials and other outstanding articles for this publication.
The further good news is that some of the articles will present
FOR ADULTS WITH LEARNING DISABILITIES
Those who assist adolescents and adults with learning disabilities
in transition planning to college will find Postsecondary Decision-Making
for Adults with Learning Disabilities - Teacher Manual, Second
Edition, © 2001, by Susan A. Vogel and Lisa L. Micou very valuable.
The teacher manual is accompanied by a set of ready-to-make overheads
and a student workbook that have been used in high schools across
The purpose of the manual is to assist LD teachers, guidance and
college counselors, and parents in becoming more effective in assisting
students with LD in the decision-making process to assist them in
finding the right postsecondary settings; increasing the number
of career options for students with LD through advanced training
at the postsecondary level; increasing the number of persons with
LD whose educational attainments are commensurate with their highest
abilities; and improving the quality of their lives through enrollment
in appropriate postsecondary settings.
The information in this manual will assist teachers and students
to understand the implications of Section 504; place institutions
on a continuum; identify four types of postsecondary settings; determine
students' readiness and appropriateness for a variety of postsecondary
settings based on an understanding of their LD; and assist students
in preparing for college interviews, in comparing the various colleges
and the support services they provide, in filling out college applications,
and other forms, and in compiling a Personal Transition File.
Further, the review of Section 504 and students with learning disabilities
will assist in the understanding of Section 504, reasonable accommodations,
and the concept of the continuum of services from minimum compliance
to comprehensive LD support services.
Included in this manual as well is An Overview of Four Types of
Postsecondary Settings. Then, the section on Understanding One's
Learning Disability will assist students in understanding the results
of assessment, their strengths, areas affected by their learning
disability, and learning, teaching, and compensatory strategies.
Instructors and counselors of adolescents and adults with learning
disabilities will find many helpful suggestions.
Also included are extensive descriptions of WAIS- III subtests
and their interpretation. Based on Dr. Vogel's and others' research,
she describes some of the patterns of performance of adults with
learning disabilities in general who tend to demonstrate higher
scores on the Performance subtests than the Verbal subtests. Further,
they perform better on the Working Memory Index compared to the
Verbal Comprehension Index. They also tend to perform better on
the Processing Speed Index than the Perceptual Organization Index.
However, college students display a slightly different pattern.
They tend to display either a higher Verbal IQ than Performance
IQ or show no difference between the two IQ scores (Kaufman, A.S.,
& Lichtenberger, E.O. (1999). Essentials of WAIS-III Assessment.
New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
It is important to keep in mind that intelligence test scores and
academic achievement scores are only some of the information to
be used in generating recommendations regarding postsecondary decision-making.
Other sources of information that are powerful predictors of postsecondary
success include: number of high school courses taken in core subject
areas (i.e., English, social science, math, and science), level
of difficulty of those courses, study habits, and motivation (Vogel,
S.A. , & Adelman, P.B. (1992). The success of college students
with learning disabilities: Factors related to educational attainment.
Journal of Learning Disabilities. 25(7), 430-441; Vogel, S.A.,
Hruby, P., & Adelman, P.B. (1993). Educational and psychological
factors in successful and unsuccessful college students with learning
disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice.
The Sample Student Profile then presents the way a student might
fill out the form with the help of his or her counselor. This sample
includes test results, grade point averages, a listing of strengths
and special talents, areas affected by the learning disability,
and vocational/career interests. The portions relating to varied
student and teacher strategies were as follows:
Learning Strategies (Ways I learn best): 1) Tape record
brainstorming session on writing assignment; 2) Put each idea on
separate post-it or index card or use software such as Inspiration
on computer; 3) Sequence into logical order; 4) Proofread papers
for specific errors using log and spelling dictionary; 5) Rehearse
for exams orally.
By-Pass Strategies (Ways I can compensate): 1) Maintain
an individual mechanics log and spelling dictionary; 2) Use a calculator,
secretary's list, or Franklin Speller at all times and use it during
exams; 3) Use word processor for all written work.
Teaching Strategies (Ways teachers can help me learn):
1) Allow extended time on exams; 2) Consider content rather than
mechanics and spelling; 3) Allow use of word processor, spelling,
and writing tools during exams; 4) Use manipulatives to aid comprehension
of abstract math concepts.
The appendices list Standardized Tests Useful in Assessment of
Adults with LD, Recommended Readings; Directories; Recommended Sources
of Information, Recording for the Blind & Dyslexic Application
Form, ACT and SAT Special Testing Application Forms, and HEATH Publications
Listing with Order Form 2000. Some of their publications are available
free of charge, including resource papers, newsletters, article
reprints, Information from HEATH, and other publications.
These materials were dedicated to the students Dr. Vogel counseled.
They were highly motivated and talented individuals with learning
disabilities who wanted to continue their education beyond high
school. In working with them in the exploration, preparation, application,
and decision-making process and later in their postsecondary settings,
Dr. Vogel identified their needs and ways to address them. These
materials and recommendations for their use resulted from a collaboration
with students and their families in the postsecondary decision-making
process. It is her hope that as you use these materials, you will
find ways to individualize, expand, and update these materials regularly,
so they can serve as a valuable tool in the transition process.
Susan Vogel, Ph.D., is a Presidential Research Professor at Northern
Illinois University. She is the author of numerous publications
including a handbook College Students with Learning Disabilities
(2000) available from the LDA Bookstore (see below), Learning
Disabilities, Literacy, and Adult Education with Stephen Reder,
Ph.D., published by Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co., Inc in 1998.
She was the founding editor of LD Practice now part of Learning
Disabilities Research and Practice, and serves as consulting
editor for six journals, including the Annals of Dyslexia, the
Journal of Developmental Education, and the Journal of Learning
Disabilities. Currently, she directs a three-year project in
the State of Illinois called "Enhancing Success for Students
with Disabilities in Higher Education".
Postsecondary Decision-Making for Adults with Learning Disabilities,
Teacher Manual, Second Edition, 2001, by Susan A. Vogel and
Lisa L. Micou, is available from the LDA Bookstore. Please visit
How to Contact LDA
Write, phone, or email the national office:
Learning Disabilities Association of America
4156 Library Road
Pittsburgh, PA 15234-1349
(412) 341-1515 (voice)
(412) 344-0224 (FAX)